從雲門三句說起

比丘近巖  2012年3月14日星期三 萬佛城  The article written by Bhikshu Jin Yan on March 14 (Wednesday), 2012 at CTTB


I.   引子

1) 雲門三句:「我有三句話,示汝諸人。一句涵蓋乾坤,一句截斷眾流,一句隨波逐浪。若辯得出,有參學分,若辯不出,長安路上輥輥地。」——文偃禪師 ,《五燈會元》

2) 雲門祖風:「忘餐待問,立雪求知,困風亡時於十七年間,涉南北數千裏外。」——文偃禪師致南漢王劉晟之《遺表》(節錄)

雲門先賢們繼承這種精神,奠定了雲門宗在中國禪宗中後期獨盛二百年局面,無怪乎民間有「雲門天子, 臨濟將軍, 曹洞士民」一說。

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 II.   禪一在大覺

雲門,對我來說並不是一個陌生的名字。

只是隱約記得——它,在廣東乳源,因參方而“被”跛腳的文偃祖師(864~949)曾於此大弘雲門宗風;記得宣公上人曾於此最後辭別虛雲老和尚; 亦記得一九五二年,雲門事變中虛雲老和尚與僧眾曾於此遭困罹難。

今年一月,從香港靈會山慈興寺打完三個星期禪七的我,從香港北上廈門;原本沒有打算的,不知是天意使然,還是事出偶然,途中竟繞經廣州、韶關曲江、韶關雲門,去參拜了神往已久的兩大禪宗叢林及千年古刹:六祖的南華寺,雲門的大覺寺。

我想可能是因為我在慈興寺打七期間,看虛雲老和尚以及聖一老法師的禪七開示,有一天晚上跟信眾們討論,引用了雲門三句的公案。幾天之後的我,就已經在奔赴雲門的路上。之前,因為讀虛雲老和尚的禪七開示與年譜,對雲門二字產生極為深刻的印象,但是未曾想到,亦沒注意到,虛老在上海的禪七開示,是佛源老和尚親手筆記整理出來的。另外,我亦沒有注意到這半個世紀多世紀裏,雲門,更多的是與佛源老和尚的名字聯繫在一起。

一月五日到深圳,六日抵廣州,七日就高速公路北上﹝一路上一個個的高速公路的收費點真多啊,有時開一段路就卡住收錢,收的費用已經不是三兩塊錢,而是論百的(105元人民幣), 如此之高的收費讓我相當震撼﹞。我們途經南華寺時,在素菜館用午齋——因為目的地是雲門,沒有通知客堂。在南華寺內竟然亦沒有遇上常住僧眾。齋後,我們拜謁了六祖、憨山、丹田三大師的真身,以及六祖大師卓錫浣衣的卓錫泉,亦參觀了陳亞仙居士的墓。 

午齋之後,我們匆匆趕路,三四點鐘,終於到了雲門。大覺寺坐靠觀音嶺,周圍古木參天,翠竹高挺;與之隔池(蓮花池)相望的是對面的「雲門佛學院」。上山的路上,兩邊修竹鬱密夾道,似乎在招手歡迎遠道而來的客人。山坡左上角有工人在施工加修佛源老和尚的靈塔。參拜完靈塔,到客堂報到,安排好雲水寮,已是下午五點多,我們就去拜會住持明向大和尚(適逢年底,廟上幾位當家師,那幾天都忙於開會,以及在籌備佛學院創辦二十週年的工作,那天他們是開完會趕回來的)。走在路上,剛好是僧眾去用藥石的時間,齋堂外有一群(二十多個)十歲到十六歲左右的沙彌,很有秩序的排隊打菜。他們樸素的衣著,充滿活力的身影,成為大覺寺的一道耀眼的風景線。相信他們有人好好調教的話, 一定可以成為佛教的棟樑之才;看到他們的莊嚴僧相,心中油然湧生一種欣慰:從他們身上,似乎看到佛教的希望。

這些沙彌們,在晚上的禪堂就與我坐鄰單;晚香一共坐了大約三炷香, 那天剛好是第五個七的最後一天,所以大和尚特地趕來給大眾開示,幾位班首師父也輪流給開示。大覺寺的禪堂很大,是個多功能廳,可以作開會典禮之用,禪七時候佈置成禪堂。去參加的不乏許多年輕的大學生。大眾一起參禪的那種氛圍很好 —— 幾乎使我動念,想說以後有機會再來參加他們的禪七。國內能有這樣規模的道場,這樣認真的僧眾在參禪打坐還真是不多見的。這很多是要歸功與佛老幾十年的心血,想當年,整個雲門只剩下三個僧人,一切的硬體設施都破壞得當然無存,是他領導大家,一磚一瓦的修復起祖師道場的。他老人家在臨終的時候,還讓人攙扶著去看望大眾打禪七,去與大眾做最後的告假。

打完那天晚上的七,大和尚提早放香,讓大眾早點回去休息。不知道是不是到第五個七大眾已經到了打持久戰的階段了。對於用功上路的人,這都不是問題;對那些功夫沒有辦法上路的人,還真是一種煎熬, 我可以從鄰單沙彌的「捱」中感受出來。大約十五六歲的他,不知是不是熬久了,有些坐不住的感覺:不是貓著腰在那邊耗時間,就是找個機會在巡香師不在的時候悄悄的與他人耳語。後來我問其他的常住法師,沙彌的禪七時間表是不是與比丘的不一樣。他們說一樣的。我感歎:是不是應該給沙彌們量身定做另一個禪七時間表啊?

一方面我回廈門的歸心似箭,另一方面陪我來的居士們也無心眷留——所以,一月八日下午,依依不捨中,我們辭別雲門,驅車南下, 結束了一天的參學之旅。

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III           典型在夙昔

平時對佛源老和尚知之甚少,到了大覺寺才慢慢的閱讀了有關他的一些生平傳記與言教。知他道出湘楚耕讀世家,圓寂於2009年正月二十九。屈指一算,歷時三年矣。

我對大覺寺的好感,大概是因為佛源老和尚的緣故,在這超過半個世紀的時間裏, 他賦予這座古廟新的靈魂與活力。茲舉所讀所聞有關其生平一二,聊表追緬之懷:

一)疾風知勁燭,烈火見真金

從虛老年譜中,1951雲門事變突發,我們可以體會當時時勢的險惡, 許多佛子惶惶然,有些人嚇破了膽,還俗的還俗,躲藏的躲藏。於是,人間茶飯僧家淡;在逆境中,佛源老和尚在1952年冒著生命危險,啣命往北京請周恩來、李濟深從中斡旋,從而解除雲門的一場法難。這一段故事一直深深的印在我的腦海中。

在那時的一波波的政治運動中, 虛雲老和尚是首當其衝的;有人昧著良心羅織虛老的罪名,但佛源老和尚是屬於死頑固的一個,就是斷頭,也不肯做那些傷天害理的事。這些事情想起來令人心酸。

二)十方翹首宗風振,第一功勞在樹人

上個世級八十年代,佛教界面臨百廢待興的時候,佛老事必躬親,農禪並舉,使得祖庭漸漸重光,四方歸仰;1986年,雲門重光,趙樸初老人贈如上贊言以旌其德。後老人又辦僧伽訓練班, 後來進而擴建為「雲門佛學院」。他選賢與能,為培養僧才嘔心瀝血, 使佛學院步上正軌。茲錄上佛源老和尚培養僧才中有關「三不三要」的開示(選錄) :

 一、    三不

(1)、不住城市∶

「在大城市許多時候都是人山人海,面多太多的財色名食等太多的誘惑,與人情應酬的干擾。對修行是不利的。修行中大部分的人在戒定慧上還是不牢靠的。大凡歷史上有成就而的高僧大德多數是在深山內的寺院修行悟道的。

(2)、不住小廟∶

老和尚有一次在禪七解七前開示說,「解七後,大家不要東跑西跑,這個回小廟,那個回俗家。人事如麻,要遠離俗家。小廟小廟,就是小還俗;小還俗,與在家人是一樣的。小廟是沒辦法的。接了七,每天還是要坐六炷香;剛用功用上了路, 不能把它丟了。心散了,放鬆了。好像燒開水一樣,燒不到水開你就不燒了,水始終不會開。 接了七,還是要好好用功。」……「住叢林有規矩,過去祖師為我們考慮得很仔細,安排得很清楚。一早起來上殿,誦楞嚴咒,十小咒,這是密宗;接著念佛,這是淨土宗。不殺盜淫妄酒是持戒,是律宗。參話頭是明心見性,是禪宗。這些都是圓圓滿滿的,處處如法。都是收攝這個心,從早到晚依照叢林規矩,這個心就不散亂了。」

(3)、不住經懺門庭

為了賺錢而不惜濫做經懺的寺廟,佛門稱之為經懺門庭。老和尚在一次禪七開示中說:
  「解放前在杭州,做一次經懺就發財囉。當時做經懺,齋主不給飯吃,不給茶喝,自己要把做經懺用的供桌、佛像挑到施主那裡,然後掛起。一掛就唸起 來,一部《梁皇懺》,一念就唸完、拜完。然後拜第二個齋主,一天拜兩堂《梁皇懺》。拜《梁皇懺》呢,就是拿個簽子翻就是了,有幾個人進去在那裡翻,幾翻幾 翻就翻完了。拜呢?拜就拜那些認得的佛,作個揖躬躬腰就了了。一天晚上還要放二三臺焰口。你看那有什麼用呢!」

 二)、三要

(1)、要將身心傾注在祖師道場

因為祖師道場多為名山叢林,「為宏道利生之法窟,為明心見性之佛場,如衣有領,如 網有綱。身心安樂,飲食調和,有道者慰以深嘉,無道者警以前進。如滿林之竹,比比爭高;如大園之松,雄雄上進,不負四恩,有光三有。誠為僧人之僧寶地 也。」 「如是非住叢林,不能培其佛因,非住叢林不能成其佛果;否則因地不真,果遭紆曲,要知道叢林為三寶主體,亦為辦道基礎。叢林衰,正法無從久住;叢林興,三 寶為世福田」。

(2)、要把禪風發揚光大

「要好好用功,不要偷懶!一心一意把書讀好,規矩法則學好。將來弘法利生,個個都去辦道 場,個個都去辦禪堂。禪堂,是中國的最上乘法」。

(3)、要把明心見性作為終身奮鬥的目標

有人就問,為何古人見性多而今人見性少及參禪要訣請益,老和尚開示說:「參禪無秘訣,只要生死切。古人與今人的根本區別不是悟性的高低,而是生死 心真切不真切。古人大多生死心切,把明心見性成佛作祖視為人生至高無上的大事,故能死盡名聞利養等世間心,一切放下,全力辦道。你看(虛雲)老和尚,出家 後立志剛猛,住禪堂、住茅棚,拜山、行腳參訪善知識,花了幾十年功夫,才能在高旻寺禪七中功夫用到得力處,萬念頓息,功夫落堂,一念不亂,護七的送茶水濺 到手上,茶杯掉落地『啪』,見性了。這是機緣,護念功夫到位,任何一個觸景都能開悟。關鍵是明心見性的心要切,用功就能得力。現在的人大多世間心不死,或學學唱念有點供養過日子了事,或學學經教講講經,甚至整天忙於應酬,熱熱鬧鬧,這樣子用功怎麼行?有這種思想功夫就用不上。出家人一定要明心見性,不說大徹大悟,最起碼小悟也要開一些,出為人師才具宗師手眼,才能避免依文解義,胡拈妄舉。所以出家人一定要發生死心,奮發大人志氣,真參實證,以明心見性成佛 作祖為終身奮鬥目標」。


 Starting from the Three Phrases of Yunmen 

I.    Preface
Yunmen said, “I have three phrases to reveal to you:  ‘to contain Heaven and Earth,’ ‘to sever the many streams,’ and  ‘to drift with the waves.’ If you can discern and understand these three, then you are ready to study. If not, then you are still traveling arduously along the road from Changan.”#—from The Five Lamp Compendium

The Tradition of Yunmen: “Waiting to inquire, I neglected to eat; seeking understanding, I settled in the snow; stranded in the wind, I lost the time. For seventeen years, my footsteps traced a thousand miles, north and south across the rivers.” — Master Wen Yan, A Bequeathed Report to the King Liu Sheng of Southern Han.

The worthy patriarchs of the Yunmen School carried on the spirit of Master Wen Yan, laying a solid foundation for the Yunmen School, which flourished in China for over two hundred years. It is no wonder that there was a saying at the time: “Yunmen is the emporer; Linji is the general; Caodong is the scholar.”

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II.   A One-Day Chan Session in Yunmen

The name Yunmen, or “Gate of the Clouds,” was not at all unfamiliar to me. I had only a vague memory of the place — Located in Guangdong Province, it used to be the headquarters of the Yunmen Lineage, whose founder, Dhyana Master Wen Yan (864-949) had spread his teachings widely. I remembered that it was the place where the Venerable Master Hsuan Hua had bid his last farewell to the Elder Master Hsu Yun, where, in 1951 and 1952, Venerable Master Hsu Yun and other monks had undergone great ordeals of suffering, ordeals which history would later remember as the “Yunmen Incidence.”

In January 2012, after having completed three weeks of Chan Session in Cixing Monastery on Linghui Mountain of Hong Kong, I made my way northwards to Xiamen to see my parents. I had no plan or intention to go to Yunmen; I don’t know if it was the will of Heaven, or a mere coincidence, that my path was diverted from Shenzhen to Guangzhou, from Guangzhou to Qujiang of Shaoguan, and then to Yunmen. In Qujiang and Yunmen I had an opportunity that I had been longing for, to visit and pay reverence to two of the important Chan Monasteries in China, both of which have a history of over a thousand years:  the Sixth Patriach’s Nanhua, or “Southern Flower” Monastery, and the Dajue, or “Great Awakening” Monastery of Yunmen.

This opportunity was possibly due to my readings of Dhyana Patriarch Wen Yan’s stories and teachings. During the Chan Session in Cixing Monastery, I read books by Venerable Master Hsu Yun and Venerable Master Sheng Yi. At the evening discussion with the participants, I quoted from the stories that I read about Master Wen Yan and his biography. I did not forsee that I would embark upon a journey to Yunmen several days later. Long before this, after reading Venerable Master Hsu Yun’s Chan instructions and biography, the word “Yunmen” had left a deep impression upon my memory. Nevertheless, I did not notice that the famous Chan instructions given in Shanghai by Venerable Master Hsu Yun had been compiled by Master Fo Yuan, whose name means “Source of the Buddha.” I also had not noticed the fact that in the past half a century, Yunmen had been closely associated with the name of this eminent monk, the late Venerable Master Fo Yuan.

I arrived in Shenzhen on the 5th of January, and Guangzhou on the 6th. By the next day I was on the highway, traveling north to Yunmen. I encountered many tollgates on this highway; Every so often, I would find myself coming to a new tollgate. The charges were high, not two or three yuan (China’s currency), but hundreds (at one time 105 yuan). It was quite shocking for me to see charges so high.

When we passed by Nanhua Monastery, we had lunch at the Vegetarian Restaurant. Because our destination was Yunmen, we had not informed the guest department at Nanhua Monastery that we were coming. During our short stay at Nanhua Monastery, we never saw the resident monks there.

After lunch, we went to pay our respects to and worship the remains of the Sixth Patriarch Master Huineng, Master Hanshan (of the Ming Dynasty), and Master Dantian. We also paid a visit to the Sash Rinsing Fountain, and the layman Chen Yaxian, who was the previous owner of the property at Nanhua Monastery.

Afterwards we left for Yunmen, arriving at Dajue Monastery at about three or four o’clock. Dajue Monastery rests on Guanyin Mountain, where the ancient trees still reach upwards to the sky. Long and slender bamboo also towered above us. Across from Dajue Monastery was the Yunmen Buddhist Academy. As we made our way up the mountain paths, bamboo rose up on both sides, as if to welcome and greet these guests.

High up and to the left, we could see the remedial construction project to repair the sharira tower of Master Fo Yuan.

After paying reverence to the Sharira tower, we went to report to the Guest Department of Yunmen. It was 5:30 PM, and an audience with the abbot, Dharma Master Ming Xiang, had already been arranged for us. He had returned in haste to the monastery after having attended some end-of-the-year meetings in various places. The abbot and other key-positioned monks were busy preparing for the twentieth anniversary of the founding of Yunmen Buddhist Academy.

On our way to meet with the abbot Ming Xiang, I saw that a group of more than twenty young novices, ranging in age from about 10 to 16, were walking single file to the Dining Hall to have their meal. This dinner is called a “medicine meal” in monastic terminology. The wholesome demeanor and the orderly serenity of the group, together with their simple attire and energetic manner, were quite scenic, and became a highlight of my visit. If properly educated, I believe they will definitely become pillars for a future Buddhism. Seeing them, I have a sense of hope for Buddhism in the future.

These young novices were also attending the Chan Session. Some were sitting near me, or right next to me. It was Saturday, the last day of the fifth week of the Chan Session, so the abbot came to give a special instruction on Chan practice. A few other important monks, those who held key positions in the monastery, also took turns giving instructions that night.

The Chan Hall at Dajue Monastery was a large and versatile multi-purpose hall. When Chan sessions were not taking place, it could be used as an auditorium, and during the Chan Session, it could be quickly converted to a Chan hall.

Among the participants present were quite a few college students. When the whole assembly was participating in the Chan session together, the energy and feeling was very inspiring. It moved me to consider coming to some of their Chan sessions in the future. I had rarely seen such large Chan monasteries in China, with so many sincerely practicing monks. Much of this success can be attributed to Elder Fo Yuan, who put in many decades of effort. At one time in the past, there were only three monks at Yunmen. They chose to stay on despite the very harsh political climate. The temple facilities and buildings had been destroyed. Elder Fo Yuan overcame these difficulties and inspired the monks and lay people to rebuild the monastery gradually. Before passing away, he asked the monks to carry him to the Chan Hall, where he took the traditional leave of absence from the Sangha, and gave his last blessings to the Chan students.  

After the sit, the abbot announced that people could go back to the dorms and rest early. Perhaps this was because it was the fifth week of Chan and people were worn out. Sitting Chan can be like a kind of protracted warfare. What is a dauntingly long session for beginners is no problem for seasoned cultivators. I could sense from the novices sitting near me how they felt about the Chan Session.

A novice about the age of 15 or 16 was barely making it. He was crouched over, his posture bent, waiting for each second to pass quickly. He would try to whisper to his fellow novices whenever the monitors were not present. Afterwards I asked another bhikshu if they had created a different schedule for the young novices. He said the schedule was the same for everybody. I sighed, reflecting to myself that it would be wiser to tailor a schedule that met the novice’s experience and needs.  

I could not wait to go back to Xiamen to see my parents, and the lay people who accompanied me were eager to go back to Guangzhou. So on the 8th of January, we drove south, with a feeling of sadness at parting from Yunmen. This put an end to our day of study at Yunmen.

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