懺悔與寬恕 Repentance and Forgiveness

比丘尼恆教講於2011年5月10日星期二晚 萬佛城大殿  Bhikshuni Heng Jiao’s talk on May 10 (Tuesday evening) in the CTTB Buddha Hall

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師父上人、各位法師、各位佛友:阿彌陀佛!這裡是恆教,今天和大家結法緣。今天要跟大家談的還是有關懺悔法門。

Venerable Master, Dharma Masters, and Buddhist friends: Amitabha! This is Heng Jiao, and would like to tie dharma affinity with everyone here. Today, I would like to talk about the Repentance of Dharma method.

尋過、思過、悔過,是學習懺悔法門的第一步。循著懺儀找尋自己的過錯,悔過之後更是要改過。所謂凡夫聞過、君子寡過、聖人無過;一般人只知道有過失而不能真正地改過。君子因為能改過才能寡過;不過聞過甚至改過,都還是不是聖地,惟有聖人的境界才能無過。

Finding faults, recognizing faults and repenting of one’s faults are the steps of learning the Repentance of Dharma method. By following the text of repentance, we may find our own faults, after repent of our faults, and then we have to change our faults.

There is a saying, ordinary people only hear about their mistakes, the superior people make only few mistakes, and the sages have no mistake. Ordinary people can only hear about their faults but they don’t correct themselves honestly. Because superior people are able to correct themselves, so they can make only few mistakes. However, hearing about mistakes and making few mistakes are not yet the stage of sagehood yet. The sagehood requires no mistake.

《涅槃經》上說,有智慧的人具備兩種條件,一是不造種種的惡業,二是做惡之後而能懺悔;愚癡的人也有兩種,不但做罪,還更覆藏。

In the Nivana Sutra, a wise man has two qualifications. One is not to create evil offense. The other one is to repent and remorse after one has done so. A fool has two, too. One is to create evil offense. The other one is to hide one’s fault.

為什麼凡夫只能聞過呢?長久以來我們不但是習而不察,而且是習以為常,乃至習非成是。就因為習氣毛病不是一日養成的,所以要能改過,更須要下一番功夫。相信大家都是有備而來,也希望大家都藉此善緣,乘三寶力,懺三種障。

Why do ordinary people only hear about their mistakes? Since long time ago, we have been doing things without recognizing them and take it as ordinary to point that we take what is wrong to be what is right. Our habits are not developed overnight, therefore if we wish to rectify our bad habits, then we have to really apply a quite bit effort to change. I believe everyone here has intention to do it, and hope everyone takes this good opportunity to repent our three kinds of karmic offenses by relying on the power of the Triple Jewels.

上學期有一次在上佛學課時,問班上的培德女中同學們,對於十不善業,也就是身三(殺、盜、淫)口四(妄言、綺語、兩舌、惡口)和意三(貪、瞋、癡),對她們來說哪幾項是最難做到的?得到的答案大多數是口業。在《四十二章經》裡也有二十難,其中有一難也就是「不說是非難。」所以這要守口業是不容易做到的。我們不但是要守口德,更要清淨口業。

Last semester, when I taught Buddhist Study in our Developing Virtue Girl School. Among the ten unwholesome karma: including three evil offenses of body—killing, stealing, and sexual misconduct; four offenses of mouth—lying, frivolous talk, double tongue, and harsh speech; and three offenses of mind—greed, hatred, and delusion. I asked them, what are the most difficulties to you? I received one of their most difficulties is mouth karma. According to the Sutra In Forty-Two Sections Spoken By The Buddha, there are twenty different kinds of difficulties. One difficulty is not to gossip. For the most part, people enjoy gossiping. Indeed, to refrain from gossiping is a difficult thing to do. Not only do we need to proper restraints in our utterances, but also we have to purify our mouth karma.

還有一次我要同學寫一個主題,主題是「觀想你葬禮的時候‧‧‧」第一:你希望哪些人來參加?第二:你希望他們能為你做什麼?第三:為了要達到你的希望,你須要做如何的改變或改善?在這篇文章裡,幾乎所有的同學都提到希望自己的親友、師長及同學都到場。有佛學背景的同學提到,要別人幫助她念佛。最重要的是每個學生都很誠實地寫出自己以前所犯的過錯,勇於改過,並希望得到寬恕。

Another time, I asked my class to write a paper of question and answer. The topic is “Imagine your funeral service…” My first question is whom do you expect them to come? The second one is what would you like them to do for you? My third question is in order to meet your expectation, how would you like to change or improve yourself?  In this article, almost everyone mentioned about they expect their family members, teachers, and classmates to come. Some of my Buddhist students mentioned that they would like to have people to recite the Buddha’s name as part of funeral service. The most important is that every student is very honest about what wrongdoing they have done, and they want to change themselves and expect to receive the forgiveness from others.

講到寬恕,曾經有機會參加過基督教和佛教的座談會,我聽一位神父說,他有幾次親睹即將臨終的人,都心懷忿恨,最後含恨而去,讓這位神父特別震驚和難過。因為他覺得很遺憾,即使身為神父,也沒有能力幫助他們在走完人生的最後的一刻釋懷。

As the forgiveness, I have participated few times of the Catholic and Zen Dialogue, one priest shared his experience and said, he had observed several times that people were angry and holding hatred towards others when they passing away. He feels very sad and sorry for not being able to help them to release their emotion before their perished.

在近代歷史上,前印度總統甘地,在印度獨立前,有一次印度人和當地的回教徒起衝突。一位追隨甘地的印度人哭著向甘地說:他的兒子被回教徒殺了,問甘地怎麼辦?甘地想了一下告訴他說,去領養一個回教徒的孤兒,並用回教徒的文化來教育這個孩子,把他撫養長大。剛才提到二十難裡,另一項就是「被辱不瞋難。」如果有人侮辱我們之後,我們還能不瞋恨,心裡還能保持平靜,這是很不容易做的;更不用說當別人取走我們身邊的親人。

In the modern history, Gandhi is the former president of India. Before the independence of India, there was a serious conflict between Hindus and local Muslims. One Gandhi’s Hindu follower cried and asked for help from Gandhi. He told Gandhi that his son was killed by Muslim. Gandhi waited a second and responded that to adopt a Muslim orphan, and raise him with Muslim culture. I have mentioned earlier about the twenty difficulties. Another difficulty is that it is difficult to be insulted and not become angry. If someone maltreats you and puts you down, it is truly difficult not to get angry, to remain calm as if nothing happened. Not even to say if people take away the lives of our relatives.

懂得懺悔和學習寬恕別人,都是通往菩提必修的課程。只有懺悔,才能心無罣礙;心無罣礙,才得以安樂。相對的,也只有寬恕別人,才能忘記自己的痛苦;沒有痛苦,才能解脫。寬恕別人也就是寬恕自己;為什麼呢?今生的果是前世的因,今生所做便結來世的果。種什麼因就結什麼果。修習懺悔法門也就幫我們解冤釋仇。佛經上說,「若人造重罪,作已深自責,懺悔更不造,能拔根本業。」

Willing to repent and forgive are both necessary steps to walk on the path of Bodhi. Only rely on repentance, we may have no impediment. Once we have no impediment, we may feel peaceful and enjoyful.  On the other hand, only practice forgiveness, we may forget that resulted suffering. Without suffering, we gain liberation. We may liberate ourselves from suffering.  To forgive others is also to forgive ourselves. Why?  We are the result of our previous lives and we now are creating our personal and collective futures. We know that “what we do will shape what we become.” Only when we practice the Repentance of Dharma method will we be able to untie enmity and remove revenge/hatred. The Sutra text says, “If one had creates heavy offense. One should sincerely repent and never pass down the mistake. In such way, one will be free from one’s evil karmic retribution.

懺者名慚。悔者名愧。慚則慚天。愧則愧人。慚者內自羞恥。愧者發露向人。占察善惡業報經提到業不清淨,要先修懺悔法門。懺悔能長養一切善行,藉由種種善行,才能生出一切功德。佛教有所謂的七聖財。《法句經‧篤信品》也提到「信財戒財,慚愧亦財,聞財施財,慧為七財。」《百法明門論》也把有慚和有愧列為十一個善法中。心造要以心除。禮佛名經事儀,開章明義就提到「欲求聖果。先懺罪愆。三業清淨。方趣覺路。」

Remorse also carries the meaning of repentance. One feels sorry for ones offenses or faults. The sense of shame is felt toward the Heaven and the sense of remorse is felt toward people.  The sense of shame involves the internal aspect in one’s mind whereas the sense of remorse causes one to reveal one’s faults to others.   According to the Sutra that Examines the Retribution of Good and Evil, those with impure karma must practice the Repentance Dharma method.

Practicing repentance enables one to augment and nourish all wholesome conducts. Subsequently, all the merits and virtues are developed.  In Buddhism, there are seven kinds of wholesome wealth.  In the Solid Faith Chapter in Dhamapada, it says, “The seven kinds of wealth are faith, moral precept, a sense of shame and remorse, erudition, giving and wisdom.  According to The Hundred Dharma Shastra, a sense of remorse and shame is also listed as one of the eleven wholesome dharmas.  Karma is created by the mind. Therefore, it must be eradicated from the mind.  In the Introduction manual of the 10,000 Buddhas Repentance, it begins with this passage, “If one wishes to become a sage, one must repent one’s karmic offenses. Only when one’s three types of karmic offenses are purified will one be able to tend toward the path of Enlightenment.

還未證聖之前,每個人都會犯錯。在 《天台四教儀註彚補輔宏記卷九》之上 也提到,「懺悔是從凡(夫)通至等覺。不可謂是只凡夫之事。此(訓)誡(有)增上慢(態度)人也。二者。上至等覺尚須懺悔。即使等覺位的菩薩尚有一念的無明。何況是初發心的人。若不懺悔。(業)障(要如)何由(消)除。(迷)惑(又如)何由(能)破。」

Before becoming a sage, everyone will make mistakes. The Commentary of the Tian Tai’s Four Modes of Teachings also indicates that repentance is the method for living beings to transform from the path of ordinary people to the Bodhisattva Stage of Equal Enlightenment, not only for ordinary people. It aims to admonish the people who have overwinning pride. Secondly, the bodhisattvas who have attained the stage of equal enlightenment are also required to practice repentance, because they still have a trace of ignorance, not to mention those people who have just resolve for Bodhi. If one doesn’t repent, then how one’s karmic obstacle and delusion could be eradicated and destroyed.

今天是佛誕的正日。釋迦牟尼佛是在由母親摩耶夫人右脇生墮地,舉右手住而言:「天上天下,唯我為尊。三界皆苦,何可樂者?」這個三界不但是苦,而且是越來越苦。眾生危微;國土危脆。看看我們所居住的世界,災難是一天比一天多,眾生也是一天比一天地脆弱。為了要淨化這個依報世界,我們得先淨化我們的身心。當我們的三業達到純善時,這世界才能完全淨化。

Today is the actual day of Shakamuni Buddha’s birthday. Shakamuni Buddha was born in Lady Maya’s right arm. After he was born, he raised his right arm and pointed to the heaven, he said, “Below the heaven and above the earth, I am the only Honored One.  All is suffering in the Three Realms, what happiness is there?” Not only does the Three Realms suffer, it becomes more and more suffering. Living beings are fragile and endangered, and the world in which we dwell is full of danger. In order to purify the world resulted from our collective retribution; we must first purify our body and mind. Only when we have cultivated our body, mouth and mind to wholesome perfection will the world be purified.

今天是佛誕,又才開始拜萬佛懺,大家仰仗釋迦牟尼佛及萬佛的慈悲力,誠心禮拜萬佛,提醒自已見賢思齊,也讓自已身心清淨,更為世界和眾生祈福。希望和大家共勉之。

Today is the Buddha’s birthday. Also, we just began the 10,000 Buddhas Repentance. We may rely on the kindness and compassion of Shakamuni Buddha and 10,000 buddhas, to repent and bow sincerely.  We should emulate the Buddha and purify our body and mind. Moreover, we should pray for the sake of the world and all living beings. Hope we can mutually urge each other on.

3 則迴響於《懺悔與寬恕 Repentance and Forgiveness

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