法喜與隨喜

Brooks Hansard 講於2012年8月20日星期一晚 萬佛城大殿  A talk given by Brooks Hansard on August 20 (Monday), 2012 at Buddha Hall of CTTB

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各位善知識:晚安!我的名字是Brooks(布魯克斯)。今天晚間我要作的報告是:一個我們內心很優良、很好的一個特質。我想這是我們在修行的時候一個很重要的部分,那就是法喜。

幾個星期之前,我跟一位我們(萬佛)城裡的比丘談話時,學習到很有趣的一件事情。我所知道的就是在南傳的佛教的修行,他們認為:「佛教徒在修行的時候,假如對你的行門,對你的修行沒有生起歡喜心的話,你所修的是沒有功德的。」我認為這個看法是很有意思、很感興趣的;因為我自己有些時候參加法會、修行的時候,並沒有生起歡喜心。所以,假如從這個觀點來衡量的話,我很多時候都是沒有任何功德,都是白搭功。

當然,從我們自己北傳的傳統來看,並不一定是贊成他們這種看法;任何一個法門,我們去修行的時候,不管有沒有釋放出法喜,我們都有功德。但是我覺得,假如是把法喜放在一個重要地位,也講得通。就是說假如我們在修行的時候,能夠抱持一個法喜充滿的這個心態來的話,肯定會比一個我們在修行的時候,只是隨梆唱影、漠不關心的狀態,會有更大的好處、更大的功德。

我覺得,假如我們在修行的時候,能夠隨喜功德,或者隨喜別人的修行成就的話,會得到一些好處。第一個,就是法喜能夠有這樣的功用,就是當我們在做很密集的修持的時候,能夠讓我們產生很清涼滋潤的感覺,就好像在燃燒我們內心的一些煩惱、有漏的習氣。因此,當我們在做這樣的修行的時候--就比如說像是在這個大熱天,在太陽底下曬了很久,就會把我們內心的煩惱蒸發、燒掉。但是這個時候,因為曝露在陽光裡頭太久了,所以我們的心同時也很容易被曬得乾枯了,從這樣的一個燃燒、曝露在太陽的效果。

我們另外可以想像的就是,一般在中國的寺廟裡頭有五百羅漢像;那五百羅漢像一般展現出來的,就是讓人覺得好像很憔悴枯槁,或者營養不良,不健康,或者沒有那個活潑的樣子;這個就是我剛開始的這樣做的比喻。假如我們內心能夠生起法喜的話,這個法喜就可以起到清涼的效果,好像甘露一樣來滋潤我們的心;這樣子的話,可以讓我們的心能夠柔軟、滋潤,充滿了這個活潑的氣象。

我認為,法喜是在修行的時候很必要的一個條件,讓人能夠維持精進,在佛道上能夠維持很多年。假如一個人他沒有這個法喜,就依靠著他自己,純粹是意志力,或者很堅定的決心,也可以撐個兩、三年;但是我認為一個人從長遠來看,一個修行者要精進,持續要很久的話,還是需要得到這個法喜的利益。法喜是能夠提供我們力量,能夠啟發我們、鼓勵我們,讓我們在修行的路上想要更上一層樓。

比如從大乘法來講,就好像是一部大的車子,隨喜功德這種法喜就比如是潤滑油,可以使大乘這部車子的輪子啊、機械啊,得到很好的潤滑,可以維持良好的運轉,不會說半路就拋錨、壞掉。隨喜別人的功德,對我們自己也很有幫助的,假如能夠這樣子的話,就能夠避免我們內心生起負面的嫉妒心。

當我們在共同修行、共同生活的這個過程裡頭,我們會發現我們有一些很誠心的同修道友,他們有相當的成就,有一些成功,有進步;這個時候我們不但不要生出嫉妒障礙的心,我們反而應該生起隨喜贊歎,和隨喜他們成就的這樣的心。然後可以啟發我們,在某一天我們也可以青出於藍,我們也是可以跟他們看齊的。

我們隨喜別人的功德,這個不用置疑,是一個很有價值的一個行為。因為普賢菩薩在他十大行願裡,教導我們第五個願,就是要隨喜功德。普賢菩薩他也是徹底奉行隨喜所有人的功德,包括隨喜佛的功德,菩薩、聲聞、辟支佛、緣覺乃至於無學,還有所有眾生的無量無邊的功德。即使他們的功德只是像微塵那麼少、那麼一點點的功德,我們也是要隨喜他們的功德。在整部《華嚴經》裡頭,經常不斷地在贊歎普賢菩薩的行願;既然在這個十大行願裡頭提到,我們就知道,這個隨喜功德是非常重要的。

我想分享一個自己親身的經歷。我在幾個星期之前在做早課的時候,我這麼觀想:「我們是在萬佛城這麼一個道場裡頭,在當今這樣的世界裡頭,我是非常地幸運。最難能可貴的,是有這樣的僧團--這樣的僧團非常重視持戒,非常重視波羅提木叉。然後我觀想我自己,這個是非常難得的機會,能夠遇到宣公上人--一位證悟的、大師級的法師--能夠學習他的法脈。他是非常的地重視道德。我又觀想,我自己是非常地幸運,能夠遇到這樣的僧團,在這樣的環境裡頭跟諸上善人,這麼多的好朋友共同生活,在道上鼓勵我。」

我繼續觀想:「這邊非常清凈的生活方式;法師們所過的都是非常清凈的生活。」當我這樣做觀想的時候,得到了非常清凈、非常大的歡喜,充滿了我的內心。我說:「哎!這真是非常地稀有、非常難能可貴!」所以在整個早課期間,從開始有這樣想法的時候,我內心就會非常專注在這樣的觀想上,而且我得到無限的喜悅。然後我從佛殿回到我的寮房去,在那邊打坐一個小時。

我從這邊佛殿回到寮房後,我繼續又這樣子觀想,隨喜法師們的功德,隨喜他們的清凈的梵行;在這樣打坐的時候,我內心從來也沒有像這樣寧靜過,或是從來也沒有像這樣遠離了煩惱的經驗。所以當我打坐之後呢,我就觀想這個普賢菩薩,他非常非常地重視、強調隨喜別人的功德。這個是我親身體驗的,可以說第一手的經驗,隨喜功能確實是一個強有力的行門。

另外一個方式就是:隨喜別人的功德,是透過一個非常善巧的形式,可以利益我們自己。我是讀龍樹菩薩所著的《大般若波羅蜜論》,在那裡頭學到的。龍樹菩薩解釋:「一個菩薩能夠善巧地連接、合併隨喜功德以及迴向功能,跟般若波羅蜜——也是般若到彼岸--的話,他自己的功德,會遠勝過於你所隨喜的這個人所修的功德。」

我首先要提出這個關於隨喜功德的一個定義:在我們萬佛城這邊所提的,就是隨喜別人的功德。那麼根據龍樹菩薩(的話),他是這麼講的;他提出一個例子:有人在修行覺悟的法門--覺悟的行門--的時候,比如他在修行布施啊,持戒啊,禪定這些行門,然後一個旁觀者--第三者--看到了,生出了歡喜心,贊歎他,跟他講說:「善哉!善哉!在這麼一個充滿迷惑、無常的世界裡頭,你能夠增強你自己的大菩提心,你能夠種這麼多的福田,修這麼多的功德!」

龍樹菩薩繼續再舉兩個例子。就好像有人在賣很珍貴的香水,另外一個人在買這個香水的時候,第三個人看到了;他只是站在旁邊,但他也嗅到了充滿了這個香味的的空氣。那麼第三者是隨喜;買跟賣的這兩個人,他們都沒有損失任何東西。但是,這個隨喜功德的人,他也得到了這個香味。

另外一個例子就是說:假如有人做一個供養,另外一個人接受這個人的供養,那第三個人站在旁邊,生了歡喜心說:「你做這個供養,實在是一個很好的一件事情!」他隨喜他們。但是這兩個人--一個供養,一個接受--他們也並沒有任何一點損失。所以,這個隨喜功德就是有這麼大的一個好處。

龍樹菩薩繼續敘述說:「一個菩薩,他在修這個隨喜功德的時候,如何可以超越聲聞、辟支佛他們證悟的境界?他必須要修智慧波羅蜜,才能夠超越他們原來所修的。」

龍樹菩薩繼續說:「菩薩摩訶薩他起了一念隨喜的心,想要超越聲聞、緣覺他們所修的布施,那麼這個想超越的人,他本身必須要修智慧到彼岸--智慧波羅蜜。假如菩薩摩訶薩起了一念隨喜的功德,他想要超越別人--辟支佛、聲聞的持戒的道德的話,他同時也要自己修持這個智慧波羅蜜才可以。」

龍樹菩薩繼續解釋:如何連接合併這個隨喜功德跟迴向功德,可以讓一個行者成為佛陀的第一等的弟子?他說:「只是生起了一念很簡單的隨喜功德的心,隨喜別人的所作所為的好事情,這位菩薩他會得到無量無邊的功德。這個功德是超越所有其他人的功德,但是,他必須要把他的迴向,同時把他的隨喜功德,也迴向於無上正等正覺--阿耨多羅三藐三菩提。」所以,隨喜別人的功德,這樣的特質,同時也要將它迴向無上正等正覺,可以讓這個行者成為佛的第一等的弟子。

他繼續提出一個假設性的幾個問題,說:「怎麼一個菩薩,他只是生起一念簡單的隨喜的心,就可以超越聲聞,還有辟支佛他們實際上有做這樣的供養?」接下來是龍樹菩薩的回答,他說:「當聲聞、辟支佛他在做供養,做布施的時候,菩薩只是站在旁邊看;但是他很仔細地思考,他很歡喜地恭喜做功德的這個人,然後他隨喜別人的功德。當他隨喜別人的時候,他又把隨喜的這份功德迴向於無上正等正覺;因為他能夠迴向無上正等正覺,所以他得到無量無邊的功德,就好像是佛的功德是一樣的。這樣子他有雙重的功德:隨喜功德跟迴向功德,他超越了實際上修布施的這個聲聞跟辟支佛。」

他這樣繼續解釋:「因為菩薩他修行的時候,證得法空,就是對法沒有執著。而且他的這個隨喜功德超越了聲聞、緣覺他們的布施。」龍樹菩薩繼續講:「不只是隨喜他的布施是這樣子,這菩薩隨喜聲聞、緣覺種種其他的行門,都是可以超越他們的。」

最後,龍樹菩薩是這麼講的,說:「聲聞、辟支佛他們是善於努力、不停地修行覺悟的法門,但是菩薩他相對地,看起來好像是靜靜地在那邊看,但是他透過隨喜功德,用他自己智慧的力量,這樣,菩薩的功德就可以超越前者。」假如只是(隨喜),自己沒有做,他就可以超越前者;更何況菩薩他自己親自去躬行實踐,然後他又隨喜別人的功德,那他的功德呢,就更大了。

最後,Brooks(布魯克斯)他自己的法名是叫親喜,他認為這個法喜是一個無價的資糧,在我們修行菩薩道上很重要的一個資糧。他自己的法名是親喜,親喜就是親近法喜。所以他最後是希望:所有的眾生都能夠共同接近法喜,親近法喜,然後在菩薩的道上精進,精勤地邁進。阿彌陀佛!

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Title: Dharma Joy 

by Brooks Hansard

Good evening all good and wise advisors. Amitofo! This evening I would like to talk about a wholesome quality of mind that I think is an important aspect of the Path—Dharma joy. A few weeks ago I learned an interesting fact when talking to a Bhikshu here at CTTB. I learned that in the Southern Buddhist tradition there are some who believe that a Buddhist practitioner will not create merit when practicing a Dharma-door unless if he or she also gives rise to joy in response to that practice. I found that to be very interesting, because I know for myself that there are times when I do Dharma practices without giving rise to joy in my mind, which from that perspective would mean I am not creating any merit during those occasions. Of course, our tradition would disagree with that view, and would see any cultivation of a Dharma-door as being meritorious, regardless of whether it elicits joy or not. However, what I found interesting about that view, is the great importance that it places on Dharma joy. In that sense, I can certainly agree with such a standpoint. I think a mind that produces joy while cultivating a Buddhist practice gives rise to much more merit and virtue than a mind that is merely “going through the motions” in a state of indifference to the practice.

There are several benefits that I see that derive from establishing Dharma joy in one’s mind due to one’s own practice or due to rejoicing in others’ merit and virtue. First of all, Dharma joy can cool and moisten our minds during intense practice. When we cultivate, we are working at burning up the afflictions and outflows within our minds. Therefore, our Dharma practice can be compared to the hot sun, as it burns up the afflictions in our minds. However, just like something that’s been exposed for too long out in the sun, our minds can become dry and parched from the fiery effect of our practice. A good visual example of this can be found inside the Halls of 500 Arhats located in Chinese temples. The statues in those halls depict the 500 Arhats as being haggard, emaciated, and malnourished, lacking in health and vivacity. However, continuing the previous analogy, if our minds give rise to Dharma joy in response to our practice, then that Dharma joy can act as cool, sweet dew that can nourish our minds by making them soft, moist, flexible, and pliant, full of youthful energy and vivacity.

Moreover, I believe Dharma joy is a necessary requirement for those who want to stay vigorous on the Path for many years. Perhaps a person can stay vigorous on the Path for two or three years relying on sheer will-power and strong resolve alone. However, I feel like such vigorous practice cannot be maintained over the long run if the practitioner isn’t also relying on the beneficial effects of Dharma joy. Dharma joy keeps us inspired and motivated, as we look forward to our next opportunity to cultivate. To use the metaphor of the Great Vehicle: sympathetic joy is like the oil that keeps the parts of the Great Vehicle well-lubricated and in good condition, so that the vehicle can travel a far distance on its journey, without breaking down.

Rejoicing in others’ merit and virtue is also very beneficial. For one, it helps to stop jealousy from arising in the mind. When we are living and cultivating amongst many sincere practitioners, we encounter lots of people finding success in their practice. Rather than getting jealous at their accomplishments, we can instead cultivate wholesome dharmas by rejoicing in their achievements and aspiring to someday emulate them ourselves.

There is no doubt that rejoicing in others’ merit is a valuable practice, because Universal Worthy Bodhisattva teaches the importance of sympathetic joy by including it as the fifth vow of his 10 Great Vows. Universal Worthy teaches how he completely follows along with and rejoices in all the merit and virtue of all the Buddhas, Bodhisattvas, Sound Hearers, Pratyeka-Buddhas, Learners, Those Beyond Study and all the other myriad sentient beings, even if their merit and virtue is as small as a mote of dust. Constantly throughout the Avatamsaka Sutra, Universal Worthy’s conduct and vows are praised, and since rejoicing in others’ merit and virtue is one of the 10 Great Vows of Universal Worthy, we know that it is a very important practice.

I’d like to share with you a first-hand experience I had with this a few weeks ago.  During Morning Ceremony I started contemplating our Way Place here at CTTB. I contemplated how in today’s age it’s very difficult to encounter a Sangha that places high importance on the Pratimoksha and the precepts, and how difficult it is to encounter a lineage of an enlightened master who places great importance on virtue. I contemplated how I have been very blessed to encounter such a Sangha and to live amongst such good and wholesome friends who can inspire me on the Path. I then contemplated the pure lifestyle of the Dharma Masters here and while contemplating that purity, great joy arose in my mind, as I thought, “Wow, this is wonderful! How rare!” For the rest of the Morning Ceremony my mind single-pointedly contemplated that thought, and the joy never ceased. I then returned to my room and meditated for one hour. During the walk back to my room and during that one hour sit, I continued to rejoice in the merit and virtue of the pure lifestyle of the Dharma Masters here. During that meditation my mind became the most pacified and free of afflictions that it has ever been. After I got up from the sit, I contemplated how Universal Worthy gives great importance to rejoicing in others’ merit and virtue and I realized that I had just seen first-hand why that is considered to be such a powerful practice.

Another way in which rejoicing in others’ merit can benefit us on the Path is through applying it in a very expedient way, which I learned from reading the teachings of Nagarjuna Bodhisattva. In the Mahaprajnaparamita Shastra, Nagarjuna explains how, if a Bodhisattva expediently combines the practice of sympathetic joy with the practices of transference of merit and prajna paramita, his or her merit will surpass even the merit of the person whose action the Bodhisattva is rejoicing in.

I will first give his definition of sympathetic joy, or as we call it here at CTTB, rejoicing in others’ merit and virtue. He says:  Here is an example of sympathetic joy. Someone is practicing the qualities of enlightenment, such as generosity, morality, dhyana, etc.; a spectator rejoices in it and congratulates him, saying: “That is good; in this impermanent world enveloped in the shadows of ignorance, you are strengthening the great mind of bodhi and you are planting this merit.” Nagarjuna goes on to say: Imagine there is a seller and a purchaser of all sorts of wonderful perfumes; a third person comes near and stands to one side. He also breathes the perfumed air; the perfume, nevertheless, does not diminish at all and the two people doing business lose nothing. Imagine also a donor and a recipient of the donation; a third person, standing beside them, is joyful in the good action. He rejoices with them, but the other two lose nothing. Such is the characteristic of sympathetic joy.

Nagarjuna then explains how a Bodhisattva can use sympathetic joy to surpass a Sravaka’s or Pratyekabuddha’s qualities of enlightenment if he or she also practices the perfection of wisdom. He says: The bodhisattva-mahāsattva who, by a thought of sympathetic joy, wishes to surpass the generosity of all the śrāvakas and pratyekabuddhas, must practice the perfection of wisdom. The bodhisattva-mahāsattva who, by a thought of sympathetic joy, wishes to surpass the morality of the śrāvakas and pratyekabuddhas must practice the perfection of wisdom. 

He also explains how a Bodhisattva can combine sympathetic joy with the transference of merit to become a great disciple of the Buddha. He says: By means of a simple mind of sympathetic joy in regard to the virtuous qualities of another, the bodhisattva gains merit infinitely superior to the merit of all other beings, for he transfers this merit to anuttarasamyaksambodhi. Taking delight in the virtuous qualities of another and transferring the merit to anuttarāsamyaksaṃbodhi places the bodhisattva in the first rank of the Buddha’s disciples. 

He then goes on to state a potential question that someone could ask, which is: How can the bodhisattva, by means of a mind of sympathetic joy, surpass the śrāvakas and pratyekabuddhas who, themselves, are the ones involved in giving? Here is Nagarjuna’s answer: While the śrāvakas and pratyekabuddhas are making such gifts, the bodhisattva who is standing by, notices them. He thinks about it carefully, is pleased thereby and congratulates the authors of those actions. Taking the merit resulting from this sympathetic joy, he then transfers it to anuttarasamyaksabodhi. Thus he gains immense Buddha attributes. By means of the twofold merit of sympathetic joy and the transference of merit, he surpasses the generosity carried out by the śrāvakas and pratyekabuddhas. Furthermore, by means of his knowledge of the emptiness of dharmas and his sympathetic joy, the bodhisattva surpasses the generosity of the śrāvakas and pratyekabuddhas. Nagarjuna goes on to say: What has been said here about generosity is also true for the other qualities of enlightenment of the śrāvaka: By means of a single thought of sympathetic joy, the bodhisattva surpasses all such qualities.

Finally, Nagarjuna says: The śrāvaka and pratyekabuddha adepts are diligent and struggle to practice the qualities of enlightement; the bodhisattva, on the other hand, is silent, but by his sympathetic joy and the power of his wisdom, his merits surpass those of the former. Thus, just by a mind of sympathetic joy, the bodhisattva surpasses the practitioners of the two Vehicles. What more could be said if he himself also practices the qualities in which he is rejoicing? 

In conclusion, Dharma joy is an invaluable asset for someone walking the Buddhist Path. My Dharma name is Chin Xi, which means “Drawing Near to Joy.” Therefore, I hope all living beings will join me in drawing near to Dharma joy and thereby diligently progress on the Bodhisattva Path. Amitofo!

2 則迴響於《法喜與隨喜

  1. 剛看了這隨喜功德法門,也生起点点喜悅。也用我摯誠的心,隨喜這文迥響和法會的法功德,並一一迴向阿耨多羅三藐三菩提。

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