一個有關地獄的故事

沙彌尼近本講於2017年1月24日星期二 萬佛城大殿

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諸佛、菩薩、上人、各位法師、各位法友, 阿彌陀佛。今天輪到沙彌尼近本學習和大家結法緣。如有不如法的地方,請慈悲指正。

All Buddhas, Bodhisattvas, Venerable Master, all Dharma Masters and all dharma friends. Amitabha. Today, it is Shramenerika Jinben’s turn to practice tying affinity with the assembly. If I have said anything that does not accord with the Buddha’s teachings, please compassionately point it out to me.

今天我想和大家分享一個有關地獄的故事。然後引用《法華經》裡的十如是和《楞嚴經》裡的十習六交報來分析這故事。

Today I would like to start with a story told by the Buddha on the retribution of hell beings. At the end of the story, we’ll try to analyze the story using the topics we have recently learn from the evening lectures. Namely, we will analyze it with the ten suchnesses from the Dharma Lotus Flower Sutra and the ten habitual causes and six interacting retributions from Shurangama Sutra.

以下是來自《百業經》的故事:「三藏法師」- 無因誹謗,墮無間地獄

The following is a story from the Sutra of the hundred karma titled:  “The Tripitaka Master”: baseless slander resulting in falling into the relentless hell

一時,佛在舍衛城,目犍蓮尊者經常到地獄、餓鬼、傍生、人間、天界分別觀察他們不共的痛苦,見地獄眾生寒熱殺戮之苦,餓鬼眾生飢渴燃燒之苦,傍生眾生互相啖食役使之苦,人道有情求不得苦、怨憎會、生老病死等之苦,天界五衰下墮之苦,把這些真實所見的來告訴有情,知道因果不壞,輪迴是苦,進而修行佛法,出離三界六道。

At one time, when the Buddha was in the city of Shravasti, Venerable Maudgalyayana often roam about the hell realm, hungry ghost realm, animal realm, human realm and celestial realm to discern the different sufferings undergone in each of these realm. He witnessed the sufferings of hell beings undergoing retribution of extreme heat, extreme cold and being killed; he sees hungry ghosts undergo the retribution of extreme hunger, extreme thirst and being burned;he sees  animals undergo retribution of devouring each other and the sufferings of being ordered around; he sees humans and sentient beings undergo the suffering of not getting what one wants, the suffering of being near those one hates, the suffering of birth, old age, sickness, death and etc. he sees celestial beings undergo the retribution of decay and falling into the lower realms. In turn, he speaks about all that he sees in order to save sentient beings, so that they know about the principles of causes and retribution, that transmigration is suffering hoping that they will cultivate the Buddha’s path and leave the three realms and six lower destinies.

一次,目犍蓮尊者又以神通去地獄,見一眾生正在無間地獄受苦,其業力顯現,大地變現為火紅鋼板,很多人把他的舌頭拉出來釘在地上,一時整個舌頭與身體被烈火燒盡,不一會兒又復活,舌頭被割成一塊塊的碎肉。他痛苦難忍,輾轉翻滾,大喊大叫。目犍蓮見這罪苦眾生,悲從中來,就運用智慧入定觀察,結果卻無法以自己的智慧觀察到此業報眾生的生生世世。他覺得只有遍知如來釋迦佛才能徹底見其究竟,於是剎那回到舍衛城,見世尊正為眾眷屬傳法,就上前頂禮,恭敬請問世尊:「我經常到六道中觀各道不共的痛苦,回來如實告訴世人,使他們生起厭離心,這次去了地獄,見一眾生舌頭被拉出,為火燒刀割,此眾生痛苦萬分,不知他是因何惡業遭受此報?唯祈世尊為我等演說前後因緣!」

One time, Venerable Maudgalyayana again went to the hells with his spiritual powers. He saw one hell being undergoing great suffering in the relentless hell. Through the manifestation of its own karma, the hell being sees the ground as a burning hot steel plate and its tongue is pulled out by a lot of people to be nailed to the ground. In an instant, its tongue and body engulf in flames and burned to ashes. Not long afterwards, it comes back to life again, its tongue is then cut into many small pieces. He cannot bear the pain and roll around continuously, screaming and wailing loudly. When Venerable Maudgalyayana saw it, he tried to enter into samadhi to contemplate the causes and condition of this hell being, However, his wisdom power was not enough to contemplate the causes and condition of all of its lifetimes. So he return to the City of Shravasti to ask the Buddha. When he saw the Buddha, he went up, bowed and asked the Buddha about the causes and condition of that hell being.

世尊告曰:「此眾生曾造極大惡業,在很久以前,人天導師、如來、正等正覺、無失心如來出世,當時王宮中有一位三藏法師,受王宮上下及城內外百姓供養、承侍、食衣、藥物等,非常富有。一日來了一位三藏羅漢比丘,相貌莊嚴,具有聖者之德行,眾人便對這羅漢比丘生起信心,聽受佛法,而漸漸遠離宮中的三藏法師。而這三藏法師便到處挑撥是非,又在很多人面前對這羅漢比丘作無因誹謗,說這羅漢比丘破根本戒律,持的不是佛法,是外道邪知邪見,大家最好不要依止他,否則實際恭敬供養也沒有利益。眾人不察明是非,就不再恭敬羅漢比丘,這羅漢比丘也明白其中的原因,覺得此地緣份已盡,應該回到原來住所,如果讓他這樣無因誹謗,會因我讓他造更多惡業,於是就理智離開了。之後宮中三藏法師又恢復以前的名聞利養,但死後卻墮入無間地獄受苦。諸比丘,當時那三藏法師就是現在地獄受無間之苦的眾生,因他當時無因誹謗羅漢比丘,在無失心如來到現在我的教法下,仍沒有解脫。」

The Buddha replied: “This hell being has committed great offense. A very long time ago, when the Buddha Never Losing the Bodhi Resolve was dwelling in the world, there was a Tripitaka Master living in the palace. This Tripitaka Master received many offerings from the all the people in the palace and in the city, he was very wealthy. One day, a Tripitaka Arhat Bhikshu came to the city, he was very adorn and posses the virtuous conduct of a sage. The people develop faith in this Bhikshu, accepted his teachings and gradually forgot about the Tripitaka Master in the palace. The Tripitaka Master resorted to spreading rumors everywhere, he slandered the Bhikshu without any basis, lying about how the Bhikshu broke the fundamental precepts, he claimed the Bhikshu Arhat was not practicing the Buddhadharma, but upheld deviant ways instead. He told people not to take refuge with the Bhikshu Arhat, telling them how their offerings will not bring about any benefits at all. The people could not differentiate the truth so they no longer respect the Bhikshu Arhat. The Bhikshu Arhat was very understanding, he realized his affinity with the city has come to an end. Not wanting to cause the Tripitaka Master to create more offensive karma of slander, he left rationally. After that, the Tripitaka Master regained his status with the people. However, when he died, he fell into the relentless hell to undergo his retribution. The Tripitaka Master is this hell being. Because he slandered an Arhat without any basis, he is undergoing this retribution from the time of the Buddha Never Losing the Bodhi Resolve, until now he has not been able to be liberated.”

目犍蓮尊者又問:「世尊,這眾生要到何時方得解脫?」

Venerable Maudgalyayana asked the Buddha again: “World Honored One, when will this hell being be liberated?”

世尊曰:「要在正覺師如來出世後,才能得人身,在其教法下出家,證得羅漢果,得到羅漢果位時也受很多人誹謗,以他無因誹謗羅漢比丘,以後生生世世都受人誹謗。」

The Buddha replied: “He has to wait until the Buddha Teacher of Proper Understanding to come into the world, only then he will regain a human boy. He will then leave the house-holder’s life under this Buddha, eventually attaining arhatship. When he attained arhatship, a lot of people will also slander and defame him. Because he slander an Arhat without basis, he will undergo defamation life after life.

當時聽聞的眷屬諦聽世尊演說這眾生前後因緣果報,都對輪迴生起厭離心,對因果產生誠信。當時,世尊觀眾佛子堪為法器,就傳了相應之法,聞法之後,多人證得果位。

At that time, all those who heard the Buddha’s teachings on living beings’ causes and retribution gave rise to repulsion towards transmigration and developed faith on the principle of causes and retribution. At that time, the Buddha saw that many people at the assembly qualified as Dharma vessels and transmitted expedient Dharma. When they heard the Dharma, many people attained fruition.

若引用法華經裡的十如來分析這故事, 我們可以用有如是因、如是緣、如是果、如是報的道理放映之.

【如是因】上人的解釋是指我們一切眾生的心地。因是個種子, 一切善惡的種子,種到心裏頭,這就叫心地。

The suchness of the causes. The venerable master explains that a cause refers to the minds of all living beings. The mind may be likened to a piece of ground. The seed is planted in your mind and so it is called the “mind ground.” All the seeds of good and evil planted in your mind are the causes.

故事裡頭的三藏法師具有了嫉妒心和瞋恨心, 既如是因.

The Tripitaka Master possesses the mind of jealousy and hatred, fulfilling the suchness of causes.

【如是緣】上人的解釋是:這個緣,有兩種的因素而結成的,一個是「時」,一個是「事」。緣的本身沒有善、沒有惡,可是一定要有這種的緣,才能顯出這種的相貌。要有種種的緣來幫助種子生出來,所以說「如是緣」。

The suchness of the conditions. The Venerable Master explains that there are two factors that go into making up the conditions. The first is the factor of time. The second is the factor of the situation. The condition itself is basically devoid of good or evil, but it must be present for a particular appearance to manifest. The conditions come together and help the seed, the cause, grow.

故事裡頭的三藏法師便到處挑撥是非,又在很多人面前對這羅漢比丘作無因誹謗,說這羅漢比丘破根本戒律,持的不是佛法,是外道邪知邪見,大家最好不要依止他, 既如是緣.

The Tripitaka Master resorted to spreading rumors everywhere, he slandered the Bhikshu without any basis, lying about how the Bhikshu broke the fundamental precepts, he claimed the Bhikshu Arhat was not practicing the Buddhadharma, but upheld deviant ways instead. He told people not to take refuge with the Bhikshu Arhat, Fulfilling the suchness of condition..

【如是果】上人的解釋是:你做一件事情,有一種行為的開始,那是「因」;你事情做完成了之後,這是「果」。

The suchness of the effects. The Venerable Master explains that to start out on a course of action is called the cause. If you do something, at the very beginning it is a cause. When the matter has been successfully completed, the completed matter is the effect.

故事裡頭的三藏法師死後卻墮入無間地獄受苦, 既如是果.

The Tripitaka Master fell into the relentless hell after he died, fulfilling the suchness of effect.

【如是報】上人的解釋是:報,是報應,也就是果報;你造什麼業,就受什麼報。那麼「報」和「果」又有什麼分別?在果的時候,還沒有受報;等長成了,把那個果又破壞了,就受報應。也就是你結了惡果,當正在結果的時候,還沒有受報;等過了這個果,然後就該受報應了。怎麼叫果?好像我們現在造種種的惡業,墮地獄了,這是得一個地獄的果;那麼地獄又有種種的刑罰,我們要去受這種刑罰的處分──處分就是罰,受罰了!譬如罰你墮油鍋地獄,在沒有到油鍋裏邊,這是個「果」;已經到油鍋裏邊了,那是個「報」,受那種痛苦了!
The suchness of retributions. The Venerable Master explains that retribution is the complex of effects incurred as a result of the karma you have created. According to the type of karma you create, you undergo just that kind of retribution.What is the difference, then, between the effect and the retribution? The effect takes place before the retribution is undergone. It is the immediate consequence. One undergoes retribution when the effects have been broken through and one receives recompense. If you planted an evil cause, you reap the effect. Later, you receive the retribution. What is meant by the effect? If we create all kinds of evil karma and fall into hell, that is the attainment of the effect of hell. For example, if you are sentenced to the hell of boiling oil, before you are put in the pot of boiling oil, that is the effect. Once you are in the pot, you are undergoing retribution. Receiving the torments of hell is retribution.

故事裡頭的三藏法師見大地變現為火紅鋼板,很多人把他的舌頭拉出來釘在地上,一時整個舌頭與身體被烈火燒盡,不一會兒又復活,舌頭被割成一塊塊的碎肉。他痛苦難忍,輾轉翻滾,大喊大叫。既如是報.

The hell being sees the ground as a burning hot steel plate and its tongue is pulled out by a lot of people to be nailed to the ground. In an instant, its tongue and body engulf in flames and burned to ashes. Not long afterwards, it comes back to life again, its tongue is then cut into many small pieces. He cannot bear the pain and roll around continuously, screaming and wailing loudly. Fulfilling the suchness of retribution.

接下來, 我們引用楞嚴經裡的十習因六交報來分析這故事。

Next, we’ll analyze the story with the principals of ten habitual causes and six interacting retributions from the Shurangama Sutra.

經云: 「九者、枉習交加,發於誣謗。如是故有合山、合石、碾磑、耕磨;如讒賊人,逼枉良善。二習相排,故有押捺、槌按、蹙漉、衡度諸事。」

Sutra: “The ninth consists of the habits of injustice and their interconnected support of one another; they result in instigating false charges and libeling. From them are produced crushing between mountains, crushing between rocks, stone rollers, stone grinders, plowing, and pulverizing. It is like a slanderous villain who engages in persecuting good people unjustly.”

上人的解釋是:「耕」,這個人要是盡打妄語,這不誣謗嗎?誣謗,盡說假,說話說得不正確。所以在這個地獄,就把他舌頭割出來,或者用鐵鉤子勾出來,用牛拉犁,在這舌頭上來回趟來趟去的。

The Venerable Master explains that stone rollers is another hell, as are stone grinders, plowing, and pulverizing. If a person is a constant liar and bears false witness, if his speech is totally unreliable, then in this hell his tongue is cut out. Or it is grappled with an iron hook and pulled out, and then oxen drag plows back and forth across it.

故事裡頭的三藏法師具著枉習,所以墮地獄後舌頭被拉出來釘在地上。

The Tripitaka Master has the habit of injustice, therefore when he fell into the hells, his tongue was pulled out and nailed to the ground.

經云: 「五者觸報,招引惡果。」「發明二相:一者合觸,合山逼體,骨肉血潰。二者離觸,刀劍觸身,心肝屠裂。」

Sutra: “The fifth is the retribution of touching, which beckons one and leads one to evil ends.” “There, it is aware of two sensations. One is touch that involves coming together, in which mountains come together to squeeze its body until its flesh, bones, and blood are totally dispersed. The other is touch that involves separation, in which knives and swords attack the body, ripping the heart and liver to shreds.”

故事裡頭的三藏法師受的是離觸的果報,因為他的舌頭被割成一塊塊的碎肉。

The Tripitaka Master is undergoing the retribution of touch, specifically the retribution involving separation of touch because his tongue is severed and cut into many small pieces.

最後, 我想引用華嚴經離世間品的一段與大家共勉:

「佛子!菩薩摩訶薩有十種習氣。何等為十?所謂:菩提心習氣;善根習氣;教化眾生習氣;見佛習氣;於清淨世界受生習氣;行習氣;願習氣;波羅蜜習氣;思惟平等法習氣;種種境界差別習氣。是為十。若諸菩薩安住此法,則永離一切煩惱習氣,得如來大智習氣非習氣智。阿彌陀佛!

I would like to end here with a quote from Avatamsaka Sutra’s Transcending the World Chapter:

“Bodhisattvas and Mahasattvas have ten kinds of habits. What are these ten habits? They are: the habit of bringing forth the Bodhi mind, the habit of planting wholesome roots, the habit of teaching and transforming living beings, the habit of seeing the Buddha, the habit of dwelling in a world that is pure, the habit of practicing the Bodhisattva path, the habit of making vows, the habit of paramita, the habit of contemplating all Dharmas are equal, the habit of understanding the differences of all states. These are ten habits. If Bodhisattvas dwell within this dharma, they will forever leave all habits that give rise to afflictions and attain the Tathagata’s habit of great wisdom and the wisdom that is free from all habits. Amitabha.

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