比丘近巖 2012年3月14日星期三 於萬佛城 The article written by Bhikshu Jin Yan on March 14 (Wednesday), 2012 at CTTB
1） 雲門三句：「我有三句話，示汝諸人。一句涵蓋乾坤，一句截斷眾流，一句隨波逐浪。若辯得出，有參學分，若辯不出，長安路上輥輥地。」——文偃禪師 ，《五燈會元》
雲門先賢們繼承這種精神，奠定了雲門宗在中國禪宗中後期獨盛二百年局面，無怪乎民間有「雲門天子， 臨濟將軍， 曹洞士民」一說。
這些沙彌們，在晚上的禪堂就與我坐鄰單；晚香一共坐了大約三炷香， 那天剛好是第五個七的最後一天，所以大和尚特地趕來給大眾開示，幾位班首師父也輪流給開示。大覺寺的禪堂很大，是個多功能廳，可以作開會典禮之用，禪七時候佈置成禪堂。去參加的不乏許多年輕的大學生。大眾一起參禪的那種氛圍很好 —— 幾乎使我動念，想說以後有機會再來參加他們的禪七。國內能有這樣規模的道場，這樣認真的僧眾在參禪打坐還真是不多見的。這很多是要歸功與佛老幾十年的心血，想當年，整個雲門只剩下三個僧人，一切的硬體設施都破壞得當然無存，是他領導大家，一磚一瓦的修復起祖師道場的。他老人家在臨終的時候，還讓人攙扶著去看望大眾打禪七，去與大眾做最後的告假。
上個世級八十年代，佛教界面臨百廢待興的時候，佛老事必躬親，農禪並舉，使得祖庭漸漸重光，四方歸仰；１９８６年，雲門重光，趙樸初老人贈如上贊言以旌其德。後老人又辦僧伽訓練班， 後來進而擴建為「雲門佛學院」。他選賢與能，為培養僧才嘔心瀝血, 使佛學院步上正軌。茲錄上佛源老和尚培養僧才中有關「三不三要」的開示（選錄） ：
老和尚有一次在禪七解七前開示說，「解七後，大家不要東跑西跑，這個回小廟，那個回俗家。人事如麻，要遠離俗家。小廟小廟，就是小還俗；小還俗，與在家人是一樣的。小廟是沒辦法的。接了七，每天還是要坐六炷香；剛用功用上了路， 不能把它丟了。心散了，放鬆了。好像燒開水一樣，燒不到水開你就不燒了，水始終不會開。 接了七，還是要好好用功。」……「住叢林有規矩，過去祖師為我們考慮得很仔細，安排得很清楚。一早起來上殿，誦楞嚴咒，十小咒，這是密宗；接著念佛，這是淨土宗。不殺盜淫妄酒是持戒，是律宗。參話頭是明心見性，是禪宗。這些都是圓圓滿滿的，處處如法。都是收攝這個心，從早到晚依照叢林規矩，這個心就不散亂了。」
「解放前在杭州，做一次經懺就發財囉。當時做經懺，齋主不給飯吃，不給茶喝，自己要把做經懺用的供桌、佛像挑到施主那裡，然後掛起。一掛就唸起 來，一部《梁皇懺》，一念就唸完、拜完。然後拜第二個齋主，一天拜兩堂《梁皇懺》。拜《梁皇懺》呢，就是拿個簽子翻就是了，有幾個人進去在那裡翻，幾翻幾 翻就翻完了。拜呢？拜就拜那些認得的佛，作個揖躬躬腰就了了。一天晚上還要放二三臺焰口。你看那有什麼用呢！」
因為祖師道場多為名山叢林，「為宏道利生之法窟，為明心見性之佛場，如衣有領，如 網有綱。身心安樂，飲食調和，有道者慰以深嘉，無道者警以前進。如滿林之竹，比比爭高；如大園之松，雄雄上進，不負四恩，有光三有。誠為僧人之僧寶地 也。」 「如是非住叢林，不能培其佛因，非住叢林不能成其佛果；否則因地不真，果遭紆曲，要知道叢林為三寶主體，亦為辦道基礎。叢林衰，正法無從久住；叢林興，三 寶為世福田」。
有人就問，為何古人見性多而今人見性少及參禪要訣請益，老和尚開示說：「參禪無秘訣，只要生死切。古人與今人的根本區別不是悟性的高低，而是生死 心真切不真切。古人大多生死心切，把明心見性成佛作祖視為人生至高無上的大事，故能死盡名聞利養等世間心，一切放下，全力辦道。你看（虛雲）老和尚，出家 後立志剛猛，住禪堂、住茅棚，拜山、行腳參訪善知識，花了幾十年功夫，才能在高旻寺禪七中功夫用到得力處，萬念頓息，功夫落堂，一念不亂，護七的送茶水濺 到手上，茶杯掉落地『啪』，見性了。這是機緣，護念功夫到位，任何一個觸景都能開悟。關鍵是明心見性的心要切，用功就能得力。現在的人大多世間心不死，或學學唱念有點供養過日子了事，或學學經教講講經，甚至整天忙於應酬，熱熱鬧鬧，這樣子用功怎麼行？有這種思想功夫就用不上。出家人一定要明心見性，不說大徹大悟，最起碼小悟也要開一些，出為人師才具宗師手眼，才能避免依文解義，胡拈妄舉。所以出家人一定要發生死心，奮發大人志氣，真參實證，以明心見性成佛 作祖為終身奮鬥目標」。
Starting from the Three Phrases of Yunmen
Yunmen said, “I have three phrases to reveal to you: ‘to contain Heaven and Earth,’ ‘to sever the many streams,’ and ‘to drift with the waves.’ If you can discern and understand these three, then you are ready to study. If not, then you are still traveling arduously along the road from Changan.”#—from The Five Lamp Compendium
The Tradition of Yunmen: “Waiting to inquire, I neglected to eat; seeking understanding, I settled in the snow; stranded in the wind, I lost the time. For seventeen years, my footsteps traced a thousand miles, north and south across the rivers.” — Master Wen Yan, A Bequeathed Report to the King Liu Sheng of Southern Han.
The worthy patriarchs of the Yunmen School carried on the spirit of Master Wen Yan, laying a solid foundation for the Yunmen School, which flourished in China for over two hundred years. It is no wonder that there was a saying at the time: “Yunmen is the emporer; Linji is the general; Caodong is the scholar.”
II. A One-Day Chan Session in Yunmen
The name Yunmen, or “Gate of the Clouds,” was not at all unfamiliar to me. I had only a vague memory of the place — Located in Guangdong Province, it used to be the headquarters of the Yunmen Lineage, whose founder, Dhyana Master Wen Yan (864-949) had spread his teachings widely. I remembered that it was the place where the Venerable Master Hsuan Hua had bid his last farewell to the Elder Master Hsu Yun, where, in 1951 and 1952, Venerable Master Hsu Yun and other monks had undergone great ordeals of suffering, ordeals which history would later remember as the “Yunmen Incidence.”
In January 2012, after having completed three weeks of Chan Session in Cixing Monastery on Linghui Mountain of Hong Kong, I made my way northwards to Xiamen to see my parents. I had no plan or intention to go to Yunmen; I don’t know if it was the will of Heaven, or a mere coincidence, that my path was diverted from Shenzhen to Guangzhou, from Guangzhou to Qujiang of Shaoguan, and then to Yunmen. In Qujiang and Yunmen I had an opportunity that I had been longing for, to visit and pay reverence to two of the important Chan Monasteries in China, both of which have a history of over a thousand years: the Sixth Patriach’s Nanhua, or “Southern Flower” Monastery, and the Dajue, or “Great Awakening” Monastery of Yunmen.
This opportunity was possibly due to my readings of Dhyana Patriarch Wen Yan’s stories and teachings. During the Chan Session in Cixing Monastery, I read books by Venerable Master Hsu Yun and Venerable Master Sheng Yi. At the evening discussion with the participants, I quoted from the stories that I read about Master Wen Yan and his biography. I did not forsee that I would embark upon a journey to Yunmen several days later. Long before this, after reading Venerable Master Hsu Yun’s Chan instructions and biography, the word “Yunmen” had left a deep impression upon my memory. Nevertheless, I did not notice that the famous Chan instructions given in Shanghai by Venerable Master Hsu Yun had been compiled by Master Fo Yuan, whose name means “Source of the Buddha.” I also had not noticed the fact that in the past half a century, Yunmen had been closely associated with the name of this eminent monk, the late Venerable Master Fo Yuan.
I arrived in Shenzhen on the 5th of January, and Guangzhou on the 6th. By the next day I was on the highway, traveling north to Yunmen. I encountered many tollgates on this highway; Every so often, I would find myself coming to a new tollgate. The charges were high, not two or three yuan (China’s currency), but hundreds (at one time 105 yuan). It was quite shocking for me to see charges so high.
When we passed by Nanhua Monastery, we had lunch at the Vegetarian Restaurant. Because our destination was Yunmen, we had not informed the guest department at Nanhua Monastery that we were coming. During our short stay at Nanhua Monastery, we never saw the resident monks there.
After lunch, we went to pay our respects to and worship the remains of the Sixth Patriarch Master Huineng, Master Hanshan (of the Ming Dynasty), and Master Dantian. We also paid a visit to the Sash Rinsing Fountain, and the layman Chen Yaxian, who was the previous owner of the property at Nanhua Monastery.
Afterwards we left for Yunmen, arriving at Dajue Monastery at about three or four o’clock. Dajue Monastery rests on Guanyin Mountain, where the ancient trees still reach upwards to the sky. Long and slender bamboo also towered above us. Across from Dajue Monastery was the Yunmen Buddhist Academy. As we made our way up the mountain paths, bamboo rose up on both sides, as if to welcome and greet these guests.
High up and to the left, we could see the remedial construction project to repair the sharira tower of Master Fo Yuan.
After paying reverence to the Sharira tower, we went to report to the Guest Department of Yunmen. It was 5:30 PM, and an audience with the abbot, Dharma Master Ming Xiang, had already been arranged for us. He had returned in haste to the monastery after having attended some end-of-the-year meetings in various places. The abbot and other key-positioned monks were busy preparing for the twentieth anniversary of the founding of Yunmen Buddhist Academy.
On our way to meet with the abbot Ming Xiang, I saw that a group of more than twenty young novices, ranging in age from about 10 to 16, were walking single file to the Dining Hall to have their meal. This dinner is called a “medicine meal” in monastic terminology. The wholesome demeanor and the orderly serenity of the group, together with their simple attire and energetic manner, were quite scenic, and became a highlight of my visit. If properly educated, I believe they will definitely become pillars for a future Buddhism. Seeing them, I have a sense of hope for Buddhism in the future.
These young novices were also attending the Chan Session. Some were sitting near me, or right next to me. It was Saturday, the last day of the fifth week of the Chan Session, so the abbot came to give a special instruction on Chan practice. A few other important monks, those who held key positions in the monastery, also took turns giving instructions that night.
The Chan Hall at Dajue Monastery was a large and versatile multi-purpose hall. When Chan sessions were not taking place, it could be used as an auditorium, and during the Chan Session, it could be quickly converted to a Chan hall.
Among the participants present were quite a few college students. When the whole assembly was participating in the Chan session together, the energy and feeling was very inspiring. It moved me to consider coming to some of their Chan sessions in the future. I had rarely seen such large Chan monasteries in China, with so many sincerely practicing monks. Much of this success can be attributed to Elder Fo Yuan, who put in many decades of effort. At one time in the past, there were only three monks at Yunmen. They chose to stay on despite the very harsh political climate. The temple facilities and buildings had been destroyed. Elder Fo Yuan overcame these difficulties and inspired the monks and lay people to rebuild the monastery gradually. Before passing away, he asked the monks to carry him to the Chan Hall, where he took the traditional leave of absence from the Sangha, and gave his last blessings to the Chan students.
After the sit, the abbot announced that people could go back to the dorms and rest early. Perhaps this was because it was the fifth week of Chan and people were worn out. Sitting Chan can be like a kind of protracted warfare. What is a dauntingly long session for beginners is no problem for seasoned cultivators. I could sense from the novices sitting near me how they felt about the Chan Session.
A novice about the age of 15 or 16 was barely making it. He was crouched over, his posture bent, waiting for each second to pass quickly. He would try to whisper to his fellow novices whenever the monitors were not present. Afterwards I asked another bhikshu if they had created a different schedule for the young novices. He said the schedule was the same for everybody. I sighed, reflecting to myself that it would be wiser to tailor a schedule that met the novice’s experience and needs.
I could not wait to go back to Xiamen to see my parents, and the lay people who accompanied me were eager to go back to Guangzhou. So on the 8th of January, we drove south, with a feeling of sadness at parting from Yunmen. This put an end to our day of study at Yunmen.